To swim like a tuna, robotic fish want to alter how stiff their tails are in actual time
Researchers have been constructing robotic fish for years, however the efficiency has by no means approached the effectivity of actual fish. Daniel Quinn, CC BY-NC
By Daniel Quinn
Underwater autos haven’t modified a lot for the reason that submarines of World Warfare II. They’re inflexible, pretty boxy and use propellers to maneuver. And whether or not they’re massive manned vessels or small robots, most underwater autos have one cruising velocity the place they’re most vitality environment friendly.
Fish take a really totally different strategy to shifting by means of water: Their our bodies and fins are very versatile, and this flexibility permits them to work together with water extra effectively than inflexible machines. Researchers have been designing and constructing versatile fishlike robots for years, however they nonetheless path far behind actual fish when it comes to effectivity.
I’m an engineer and examine fluid dynamics. My labmates and I questioned if one thing specifically in regards to the flexibility of fish tails permits fish to be so quick and environment friendly within the water. So, we created a mannequin and constructed a robotic to check the impact of stiffness on swimming effectivity. We discovered fish swim so effectively over a variety of speeds as a result of they’ll change how inflexible or versatile their tails are in actual time.
Leonardo Da Vinci designed a propeller–pushed helicopter in 1481.Leonardo Da Vinci/WikimediaCommons
Why are individuals nonetheless utilizing propellers?
Fluid dynamics applies to each liquids and gasses. People have been utilizing rotating inflexible objects to maneuver autos for a whole bunch of years – Leonardo Da Vinci included the idea into his helicopter designs, and the primary propeller–pushed boats have been constructed within the 1830s. Propellers are simple to make, they usually work simply positive at their designed cruise velocity.
It has solely been previously couple of a long time that advances in comfortable robotics have made actively managed versatile parts a actuality. Now, marine roboticists are turning to versatile fish and their superb swimming talents for inspiration.
When engineers like me speak about flexibility in a swimming robotic, we’re normally referring to how stiff the tail of the fish is. The tail is the whole rear half of a fish’s physique that strikes forwards and backwards when it swims.
Contemplate tuna, which might swim as much as 50 mph and are extraordinarily vitality environment friendly over a variety of speeds.
Tuna are a number of the quickest fish within the ocean.
The tough half about copying the biomechanics of fish is that biologists don’t know the way versatile they’re in the actual world. If you wish to know the way versatile a rubber band is, you merely pull on it. If you happen to pull on a fish’s tail, the stiffness is determined by how a lot the fish is tensing its numerous muscular tissues.
One of the best that researchers can do to estimate flexibility is movie a swimming fish and measure how its physique form modifications.
Visualizing how water flows across the fish tail confirmed that tail stiffness needed to improve because the sq. of swimming velocity for a fish to be best.Qiang Zhong and Daniel Quinn, CC BY-ND
Trying to find solutions within the math
Researchers have constructed dozens of robots in an try and mimic the flexibleness and swimming patterns of tuna and different fish, however none have matched the efficiency of the actual issues.
In my lab on the College of Virginia, my colleagues and I bumped into the identical questions as others: How versatile ought to our robotic be? And if there’s nobody finest flexibility, how ought to our robotic change its stiffness because it swims?
We appeared for the reply in an outdated NASA paper about vibrating airplane wings. The report explains how when a aircraft’s wings vibrate, the vibrations change the quantity of elevate the wings produce. Since fish fins and airplane wings have related shapes, the identical math works effectively to mannequin how a lot thrust fish tails produce as they flap forwards and backwards.
Utilizing the outdated wing concept, postdoctoral researcher Qiang Zhong and I created a mathematical mannequin of a swimming fish and added a spring and pulley to the tail to signify the consequences of a tensing muscle. We found a surprisingly easy speculation hiding within the equations. To maximise effectivity, muscle rigidity wants to extend because the sq. of swimming velocity. So, if swimming velocity doubles, stiffness wants to extend by an element of 4. To swim 3 times sooner whereas sustaining excessive effectivity, a fish or fish-like robotic wants to tug on its tendon about 9 occasions tougher.
To verify our concept, we merely added a man-made tendon to certainly one of our tunalike robots after which programmed the robotic to fluctuate its tail stiffness primarily based on velocity. We then put our new robotic into our take a look at tank and ran it by means of numerous “missions” – like a 200-meter dash the place it needed to dodge simulated obstacles. With the power to fluctuate its tail’s flexibility, the robotic used about half as a lot vitality on common throughout a variety of speeds in comparison with robots with a single stiffness.
Qiang Zhong (left) and Daniel Quinn designed their robotic to fluctuate its stiffness because it swam at totally different speeds.Yicong Fu, CC BY-ND
Why it issues
Whereas it’s nice to construct one wonderful robotic, the factor my colleagues and I are most enthusiastic about is that our mannequin is adaptable. We are able to tweak it primarily based on physique dimension, swimming model and even fluid kind. It may be utilized to animals and machines whether or not they’re massive or small, swimmers or flyers.
For instance, our mannequin means that dolphins have rather a lot to realize from the power to fluctuate their tails’ stiffness, whereas goldfish don’t get a lot profit resulting from their physique dimension, physique form and swimming model.
The mannequin additionally has purposes for robotic design too. Greater vitality effectivity when swimming or flying – which additionally means quieter robots – would allow radically new missions for autos and robots that presently have just one environment friendly cruising velocity. Within the brief time period, this might assist biologists examine river beds and coral reefs extra simply, allow researchers to trace wind and ocean currents at unprecedented scales or enable search and rescue groups to function farther and longer.
In the long run, I hope our analysis may encourage new designs for submarines and airplanes. People have solely been engaged on swimming and flying machines for a pair centuries, whereas animals have been perfecting their abilities for hundreds of thousands of years. There’s little doubt there’s nonetheless rather a lot to be taught from them.
Daniel Quinn receives funding from The Nationwide Science Basis and The Workplace of Naval Analysis.
This text appeared in The Dialog.
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